Showing posts with label curriculum. Show all posts
Showing posts with label curriculum. Show all posts

Monday, 2 December 2019

Including Word Etymology On Knowledge Organisers

Knowledge Organisers, Key Fact Sheets, 100% Sheets - whatever you call them - are de rigueur right now, and for good reason: they help both teachers and children with teaching and learning. For teachers, they are a good guide as to what they need to teach (and the act of creating them can be a very clarifying process). For children, it's a one stop shop for what they need to know, and is the starting point for using various methods of retrieval practice to learn the information that their teachers think they need to know.

One of the great realisations (it's more of a blindingly obvious reawakening) of the last few years, is that having a good vocabulary is key to understanding pretty much anything and that we must help children explicitly to develop their vocabulary.

If you don't know what a word means on its own, then how can you tell what it means in a sentence? And if you don't know what a sentence is trying to get across, how can you understand a whole paragraph? And if you can't work out what a paragraph mea... you get the picture: vocabulary is really important.

Often, when teaching a unit of work, in geography, or history say, there is a lot of terminology that is necessary to the explanation, but which itself is complex to explain. As a result, many teachers employing Knowledge Organisers and the like have taken to including key vocabulary too: words which will help children understand and talk about the concepts and facts they are learning.

But developing one's vocabulary isn't always easy. But, as Alex Quigley wrote, 'Etymology is a goldmine of an opportunity (too often missed) for teachers of every subject discipline'. He goes on to say that 'The stories that underpin our language can often illuminate the ideas and meanings we seek to communicate' - sounds good, right? Note the use of that word 'story' - our minds privilege story, and we learn stuff well if it is presented in story form. And what is etymology if it is not the story of a word? A story which can help us learn the meaning of that word.

Not only does learning the etymology of a word help us to understand the one word in question, it also arms us with knowledge which helps us to discover the meaning of other words that share the same root. For example, if children know that the root of the word 'terrain' is the Latin terra meaning 'earth' or 'land', they might be able to discover something of the meaning of the word 'territory', 'terrestrial' or 'terrace'. Further, they might come across the word 'terrarium' and link it to their knowledge of what an aquarium is and come to the understanding that a terrarium is like an aquarium without the water, but with earth in it instead.

Coming back to the Knowledge Organisers: if it contains information you want the children to learn, including word definitions, then why not also include some etymological information which might help the learning to stick as well as provide the basis for future understanding of word meaning?

It's simple enough to do. Here are some examples (click on the images to see them in more detail):



In order to create primary-level information about each word's etymology I usually use a combination of the google dictionary (just google the word + etymology) and etymonline. Using these resources I can usually create a child-friendly version, often opting for the 'deepest' root, usually Germanic, Latin or Greek rather than the various incarnations of the word. Here's an example:



If I were to use this word with a primary child (I probably wouldn't need to), I'd just choose to give the following: from Latin in meaning 'into' and carn- meaning 'flesh'. To get that meaning I also had to click through the link to the page for 'incarnate':



Once that definition were given, we could talk about how 'in flesh' has come to mean 'in human form'. We could also link to Chili Con Carne (meaning 'chili with meat/flesh') and the link to other Latin languages that use carne to mean meat. That's the sort of thing that is much easier to remember because it is a little strange, even though it makes total sense.

Obviously, putting the etymology on the Knowledge Organiser is only step one - what you do with that next is up to you. Certainly, you'd want to begin by teaching more around those words, displaying the words, definitions and etymology in your classroom, playing matching games, having multiple choice quizzes about the word meanings, locating those words in texts, finding other words with the same root words and working out their meanings... there are myriad possibilities.

If vocabulary is the gateway to knowledge learning, and understanding etymology is a path to vocabulary development, then half an hour spent on providing the etymology of your unit of work's key words is probably time well spent - have a go, and I'd love to see some your examples!

For more on teaching vocabulary, see my TES article 'Why Etymology Boosts Spelling And Vocabulary: https://www.tes.com/news/sats-why-etymology-boosts-vocabulary-and-spelling

For No-Quiz Retrieval Practice Techniques, click here: http://www.thatboycanteach.co.uk/2018/06/no-quiz-retrieval-practice-techniques.html

For my blog post, Using Mnemonics For Retrieval Practice, follow this link: http://www.thatboycanteach.co.uk/2018/07/using-mnemonics-for-retrieval-practice.html

For more information about using Knowledge Organisers in Primary, I've written a short overview and provided links to other educators who have written about their use: http://www.thatboycanteach.co.uk/2017/06/using-100-sheets-aka-knowledge.html

Friday, 29 November 2019

History Key Questions To Ask When Learning About A Person, Event or Period in KS1

Last year I provided a list of Key Questions linked to the KS2 National Curriculum. Since then , a few people have asked for a KS1 set of questions. When it came up as a potential need in my own school, I decided to act.

Here are a set of questions, split into three categories (People, Events and Periods of Time) that teachers can use to structure their planning and teaching. Some of the questions may be suitable for children to ask themselves, others might be better used as guidance for teachers as they plan content. Many of the questions across the three categories are very similar although there are one or two more category-specific questions.

to download these questions as a Word document, go to TES.com: https://www.tes.com/teaching-resource/key-questions-to-ask-and-answer-during-ks1-history-units-12217633

People

Questions to ask about historical figures who are studied in years 1 and 2:

Characteristics:

What are the most important facts about this person?
What do these important facts tell me about this person? (focus on understanding, rather than knowing facts)

Where (linked to KS2 Elsewhere):

Where did this person come from?

Evidence:

How do we know about this person?

Significance:

What did this person achieve or help to achieve?
Did this person’s actions change anything for the future? How did they make a difference?

Timeline:

When in history did this person live? (birth dates and death dates)
Did this person live before or after [another person/event they have studied] lived/happened?
How many years before or after [another person/event they have studied] lived/happened did this person live?
What period of time did this person live in?
Did this person live within or beyond living memory? (living memory: can be remembered by people who are still alive now, not children’s own living memory)

Events

Questions to ask about historical events which are studied in years 1 and 2:

Characteristics:

What are the most important parts of (key facts about) this event?
What do these key facts tell me about this event? (focus on understanding, rather than knowing facts)

Where (linked to KS2 Elsewhere):

Where did this event take place?

Evidence:

How do we know that this event happened?

Significance:

Did this event change anything for the future? How did it make a difference?

Timeline:

When in history did this event happen? (day/month/year(s))
What period of time did this event happen in?
Did this event happen before or after [another person/event they have studied] lived/happened?
How many years before or after [another person/event they have studied] lived/happened did this event happen?
Did this event occur within or beyond living memory? (living memory: can be remembered by people who are still alive now, not children’s own living memory)

Periods of Time

Questions to ask about historical periods of time which are studied in years 1 and 2:

Characteristics:

What is similar about the way people lived in this time period and [another time period they have studied]?
What is different about the way people lived in this time period and [another time period they have studied]?
What are the most important things (key facts) to know about this period of time?
What do these key facts tell me about life in this period of time? (focus on understanding, rather than knowing facts)
What important events happened in this time?
Which important people lived in this time?

Where (linked to KS2 Elsewhere):

Did the things that happened in this time period happen in a particular place?
Were things the same everywhere in the world during this time period?

Evidence:

How do we know about this period of time?

Significance:

How did life change during this period of time?
Did this time period change anything for the future? How did it make a difference?

Timeline:

When did this period of time begin and end? (specific years and approximate number of years duration)
Was this period of time before or after [another person/event /time period they have studied] lived/happened?
How many years before or after [another person/event/time period they have studied] lived/happened was this period of time?
Did this period of time occur within or beyond living memory? (living memory: can be remembered by people who are still alive now, not children’s own living memory)


Also available:

Geography Key Questions for KS1 and 2: http://www.thatboycanteach.co.uk/2019/06/geography-key-questions-place-national-curriculum.html

Friday, 14 June 2019

Geography Key Questions To Ask When Learning About A Place

When reviewing and revising our curriculum to ensure better humanities coverage I began to think about how there were potentially missed opportunities for children to be revisiting and re-enforcing geography knowledge and skills.

For example, when children learn about the Ancient Romans, they might learn about Italy, or indeed any of the other places in the Roman Empire. As well as ensuring that children can place the historic period on a timeline and so on, I think it is also worth them knowing about the places where events took place.

I began to think that a common approach to learning about these places might help teachers to provide sufficient and consistent information about them. I decided a set of questions that could be asked and answered whenever a new place was 'discovered' might be a good way to structure this common approach.

The hope is that, with these questions, children will begin to build up a) a good knowledge of the world, and b) a good bank of questions that they might begin to ask more autonomously whenever they come across the mention of place that they do not know much about.

I used the National Curriculum as guidance for the following questions with the intention that NC objectives would be covered multiple times during a child's time in school.

As well as sets of questions, I've also proposed some actions that might be undertaken each time a new place is learned about - one of the main aims of these actions is that children know where in the world each place that is studied is located.

A downloadable version of the below is available for free on TES: https://www.tes.com/teaching-resource/geography-key-questions-linked-to-ks1-2-national-curriculum-12133248

Thanks must go to Geography Meg on Twitter for inspiring me with her CLOCC acronym.

KS1

When learning about a new place (for example, during non-geography-based units, such as history-based units) always ask and answer these questions:

COWWS:

  • CONTINENT – Which continent is it in?
  • OCEANS AND SEAS – Which oceans or seas are nearby?
  • WEATHER – What is the weather like there? Is it hot or cold there? Is it near the equator or the poles?
  • WHO AND WHAT – Who (people) and what (animals and plants) live there?
  • SEE – What would we see there? What is natural? What has been made by humans?

A pre-populated COWWS grid - a blank
version can be found in the TES download.
When learning about a new place (for example, during non-geography-based units, such as history-based units) always carry out these actions:

• 1st: Locate it on a map of the county/region it is in (and show and discuss, using simple compass directions and locational language, where it is in relation to: other places previously studied; our country; our location)
• 2nd: Locate it on a map of the country it is in (and show and discuss, using simple compass directions and locational language, where it is in relation to: other places previously studied; our country; our location)3rd: Locate it on a map of the world (and show where it is in relation to: other places previously studied; our country; our location)
• Locate it on a globe (and show and discuss, using simple compass directions and locational language, where it is in relation to: other places previously studied; our country; our location)
• Locate it on a plan perspective or on aerial photographs
• Show images of the place (avoid only showing stereotypical images, especially when studying a whole continent or country)

KS2

When learning about a new place (for example, during non-geography-based units, such as history-based units) always ask and answer these questions:

General questions to ask about location:

HOTCLUB:

  • HEMISPHERE - Which hemisphere(s) is it in?
  • OTHER PLACES - Where is it in relation to other places we have studied or know about, including countries and continents (using 8 points of a compass)?
  • TIMEZONE - Which timezone(s) is it in?
  • CLIMATE - Which climate zone(s) is it in? (Tropical/Dry/Temperate/Continental/Polar)
  • LATITUDE - Where is it in relationship to the main lines of latitude (using 8 points of a compass)? (Arctic Circle/Tropic of Cancer/Equator/Tropic of Capricorn/Antarctic Circle) What is its latitude and longitude?
  • US - Where is it in relation to our village/town/city/county/country?
  • BODIES OF WATER - Which bodies of water are nearby?


A pre-populated HOTCLUB grid - a blank
version can be found in the TES download.
Questions to ask about the location…

…Of a continent:

• Which countries are in this continent?

…Of a country:

• What is the capital city?
• Which major cities are in this country?
• Which other countries are nearby?

…Of a city/town/village:

• Which country is it in?
• Which continent is it in?
• Which other cities/towns/villages are nearby?
• Which county/region is it located in?
• What is its grid reference?
• What are its origins?

General questions to ask about any continent/country/city etc:

Human Geography

• Who lives there?
• Which major landmarks are found here?
• What human-made features are found here?
• How was the land used here now and in the past?
• What types of settlement are found here?
• What kinds of economic activity happen here?
• Which natural resources can be found here?
• What is its population?
• (If studying a country) What do they export and where do they export it to?
• (If studying a country) What do they import and where do they import it from?

Physical Geography

• Which (terrestrial) biomes are found here? (Rain Forest/Deciduous Forest/Desert/Temperate Grassland/Tropical Grassland/ Taiga/Tundra)
• What lives there?
• What is the elevation like?
• Which major rivers and valleys are found here?
• Which major mountains are found here?
• Which natural disasters are known to happen here?

Additional, non-essential questions to ask (a non-exhaustive list):

• What is the place famous for?
• What kind of food is eaten there?
• Which religions are followed there?
• Which famous people are from there?
• What are houses and buildings like there?
• What happened there in the past?
• Which sports are played there?
• What is it like to live there?

Geography Units

If carrying out a geography-specific unit use the majority of the questions from STEEP in addition to the above questions in order to ask more in-depth questions about the place:

• Social
• Technological
• Economic
• Environmental
• Political

(Thanks to Geo Josie on Twitter for STEEP)

When learning about a new place (for example, during non-geography-based units, such as history-based units) always carry out these actions:

• 1st: Locate it on a map of the county/region it is in (and show where it is in relation to: other places previously studied; our country; our location; lines of latitude; hemispheres)
• 2nd: Locate it on a map of the country it is in (and show where it is in relation to: other places previously studied; our country; our location; lines of latitude; hemispheres)
• 3rd: Locate it on a map of the world (and show where it is in relation to: other places previously studied; our country; our location; lines of latitude; hemispheres)
• Use computer mapping (e.g. google maps) to zoom in to and out of the place, discussing location in relation to other known places
• Locate it on a political map (and look at nearby countries and borders)
• Locate it on a physical/topographic map (and look at elevation, mountains, rivers, bodies of water)
• Locate it on a climate map (and look at the colours used to show different climatic areas)
• Locate it on a map with a satellite image overlay
• Locate it on a globe (and show where it is in relation to: other places previously studied; our country; our location; lines of latitude; hemispheres)
• Locate it on an Ordnance Survey map (and identify its grid reference and use symbols to locate local features)
• Show images of the place (avoid only showing stereotypical images, especially when studying a whole continent or country)

Useful resources for preparing information to help children answer HOTCLUB questions:

HEMISPHERE - Which hemisphere(s) is it in?

Use Google: type in ‘ + hemisphere’ e.g. ‘Algeria Hemisphere for the following, or similar:


OTHER PLACES - Where is it in relation to other places we have studied or know about, including countries and continents (using 8 points of a compass)?


https://www.climate-zone.com/ - gives information about where any country is located in relation to nearby places


TIMEZONE - Which timezone(s) is it in?


Use Google: type in ‘ + timezone’ e.g. ‘Madagascar timezone’ for the following, or similar:



https://www.timeanddate.com/worldclock/personal.html - use this customisable site and the snipping tool to get a snip of clocks showing GMT and any other city in any other time zone e.g.:



https://www.worldatlas.com/ - click on a continent/country; use the ‘time’ tab to find out about timezones


CLIMATE - Which climate zone(s) is it in? (Tropical/Dry/Temperate/Continental/Polar)


Tropical (A)/Dry (B)/Temperate (C)/Continental (D)/Polar (E) are the main 5 classifications in Köppen’s climate classification system. More information can be found at the following sites:


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K%C3%B6ppen_climate_classification


https://www.mindat.org/climate.php - use the colours on the map to ascertain climate zone


https://www.nationmaster.com/country-info/stats/Geography/Climate - some of the terminology here is slightly different to Köppen’s climate classification system but it is useful nonetheless.


LATITUDE - Where is it in relationship to the main lines of latitude (using 8 points of a compass)? (Arctic Circle/Tropic of Cancer/Equator/Tropic of Capricorn/Antarctic Circle) What is its latitude and longitude?


https://www.climate-zone.com/ - gives the geographic coordinates for any country


https://www.worldatlas.com/ - use a world map from this site (or similar) to find and describe a place’s location in relation to the main lines of latitude. This site also gives latitude and longitude of any country and its main cities.

US - Where is it in relation to our village/town/city/county/country? 


Use a map to locate both places and describe position using compass points with reference to the prime meridian (Longitude 0º, Greenwich Mean Time) as this runs through the UK e.g. ‘India is to the south east of the prime meridian making it south east of the UK’


Use Google: type in ‘ to distance’ e.g. ‘UK to India distance’ for the following, or similar (add ‘km’ to search to change unit of measurement):



BODIES OF WATER - Which bodies of water are nearby?


Use a map to locate nearby major oceans and seas


Use Google: type in ‘rivers longest’ or similar e.g. ‘rivers France longest’ for the following, or similar:



Generic resources, useful for answering most of the questions:


https://www.climate-zone.com/ - gives official name, capital, area, climate, location, geographic coordinates, comparative area, land boundaries, coastline (length), terrain and elevation extremes for any country.


https://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/flags/flags.htm - flags of the world


https://www.worldatlas.com/ - for each country there are various maps (including physical, outline and location maps), basic information (including area, population, population density, currency, largest cities), history, famous natives, weather, general facts, historical timeline and more.


https://www.mapsofindia.com/worldmap/ - a wide selection of world maps can be found here including physical, political, outline, climate, tectonic plates, world time and religion maps (these maps cannot be downloaded but can be viewed on screen)


https://askabiologist.asu.edu/sites/default/files/resources/articles/biomes/world-biomes-map.gif - a useful map of the world showing biomes closely matched to the biomes selected to use (its accompanying article is useful too for defining the different biome types: https://askabiologist.asu.edu/explore/biomes)


https://www.internetgeography.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/world-map-biomes-.png - a useful map of the world showing biomes closely matched to the biomes selected to use (its accompanying article is useful too for defining the different biome types: https://www.internetgeography.net/topics/what-is-a-biome/)


https://www.britannica.com – use this site to search for information about a place – best for countries, but also works for cities too – information for towns is limited.


https://www.kids-world-travel-guide.com/


https://www.natgeokids.com/


https://tutorful.co.uk/blog/learning-geography-useful-websites-and-resources-that-will-rock-your-world - a huge list of websites and apps to support geography learning

Wednesday, 10 April 2019

From the @TES Blog: 7 Ways To Make Art Inspiring At Primary

Actually '7 Ways To Choose Artists, Artworks and Artistic Movements For Your Primary Curriculum' would have been a more accurate title...



As well as developing skills within the realms of drawing, painting and sculpture, and producing their own creative works of art, children, according to the National Curriculum, should also ‘know about great artists, craft makers and designers, and understand the historical and cultural development of their art forms’.

The artwork of others is one of the greatest sources of inspiration and information when it comes to children learning, and then applying, skills to their own pieces of work. So it is important that we teach them to appreciate the human creativity and achievement of the world’s most renowned artists.

But it is also important that the artwork, artists and artistic movements we expose our children to isn’t just a line up the usual suspects. A planned, whole school approach to developing an art curriculum is essential. Perhaps due to a lack of knowledge or time, teachers will often wheel out the same old, same olds, often meaning that children see similar things over and over again.

Read more here: https://www.tes.com/news/art-curriculum-inspiring-primary

Friday, 21 December 2018

A Model For Teaching The Wider Curriculum

After two half terms in my new school, and since curriculum planning and delivery is a hot topic, I thought I'd share a document I put together to help us visualise and explain the logistics of how we teach the wider curriculum.

The purpose of organising the delivery of the curriculum this way is to achieve the following, which we consider to be aspects of the school's culture which help us to deliver on our vision and values:
  • Responding to misconceptions through same day intervention
  • Setting children learning challenges (Apprentice Tasks) that are open-ended and encourage decision making (and time management)
  • Setting up inspirational areas of provision within the environment
  • Providing frequent masterclasses which communicate age-appropriate skills in all areas of the curriculum
  • Supporting children to critique their own work and that of others
By delivering the curriculum this way we hope to ensure that all areas of the curriculum are covered and that they aren't being squeezed out by Maths and English. We also hope that as a result of taking this approach children will not produce near-identical pieces of work. As well as this we aim to provide children with less structured time which gives them opportunities to engage in decision making and time management. Because there is less structured time than in a more traditional timetable teachers are also freed up to spend time on same day interventions based on feedback gained during all lessons, including Maths and English.

The green sequence shows what the adults are doing during the sessions; the turquoise sequence shows how children are grouped.
Units of Work

Each unit of work runs for one half term. The length of the half term will dictate the number of Apprentice Tasks set and the number of Masterclasses that take place.

Each unit of work is based on a book. Units of work cover National Curriculum objectives as well as objectives taken from the school’s own skills continuums for painting, drawing, clay work, woodwork etc. Long Term Planning documents ensure coverage of all objectives.

Each unit of work is also centres around a question which should be answered by the end of the unit using information learned during the half term.

Units of work usually cover a range of national curriculum subjects although there is often a predominant subject e.g. Space covers mainly Science but also some History and Geography, Castles covers mainly History but also some Geography. Currently most Science is taught discretely by a cover teacher during teachers’ PPA.

Key Fact Sheets

Knowledge teaching is supported by Key Fact Sheets which contain 10 key facts for the topic and 10 key pieces of vocabulary. This information is learned by heart supported by various retrieval practice activities. A Key Fact Sheet is produced per unit of work prior to the planning of the unit to ensure teachers know what it is they want children to know by the end.

Facts on the Key Fact Sheets should spark intrigue and should be a gateway to further learning. They should provoke children to ask questions and to want to find out more.

Key vocabulary words should be linked to the theme of the unit and should be words that will be used regularly in both spoken and written language during the unit. Child-friendly definitions should be written by teachers.

Diagrams and useful images may be included on the Key Fact Sheet.

The Showcase

The Showcase event provides an audience and purpose to all the apprentice tasks. It might be in the form of an exhibition, gallery, exposition or a screening. Alternative audiences/purposes might be a website, a tea party (e.g if the unit is formed around Alice in Wonderland) or a show. This event is decided upon before planning the Apprentice Tasks to ensure all tasks feed into this final event.

Apprentice Tasks and Masterclasses

Apprentice Tasks are open-ended tasks which allow children to operate with some freedom and creativity. However, each task has a set of objectives that should be demonstrated in the final piece. The expectation is that each child produces unique and original pieces of work.

Each Apprentice Task, or sequence of Masterclasses, is typically controlled by one member of staff: they source or make exemplars, research information further to the core information contained on the Key Fact Sheets, deliver the masterclasses and support children during the independent application stage.

One Apprentice Task might require more than one sequence of Masterclasses running consecutively. For example, an Apprentice Task which requires children to produce a painting might have two sequences of Masterclasses: drawing skills and painting skills.

During a Masterclass focusing on creative skills such as woodwork, painting, drawing or clay work, children will create studies which will help them to practise the skills they will need to complete the Apprentice Task.

Not all Masterclasses focus on skills teaching. There are also regular Masterclasses focusing on knowledge teaching, particularly linked to Science, Geography and History. These Masterclasses expand on the Key Facts from the Key Facts Sheets.

Some Masterclasses may focus on producing a final piece for an Apprentice Task – this would occur when children need more adult input, for example if it is too soon to expect independent application of the skills.

Some Apprentice Tasks may be group tasks, most are individual tasks.

Some Apprentice Tasks may be worked on as part of the English lessons, particularly where writing is a major component e.g. a script for a documentary, a poem, a story, a report. In this case, the Masterclasses become the whole class/half class teaching inputs.

Logistics and Organisation

Although a detailed Medium Term Plan is produced, logistical and organisational planning takes place weekly to ensure best use of time and adults. This might sometimes making decisions to provide whole class inputs rather than repeated group inputs, making decisions about length of time needed to complete a Masterclass carousel and so on. No two weeks look exactly the same where timetabling is concerned.

Most of this work takes place in afternoons once Maths and English has been taught. However, English is sometimes taught in half-class (or smaller) groups whilst some children complete a Masterclass or work on their Apprentice tasks.

Materials needed to complete Apprentice Tasks are readily available either in classrooms or in shared areas. Most of them are displayed in sight and not kept in cupboards – children can access what they need when they need it without needing to ask for it.

The Environment

As well as the Apprentice Tasks and the Masterclasses there are also further activities (linked to prior teaching in all subjects) which children can access (usually independently) during the time set aside for work on the wider curriculum. These will be set up in classrooms in the same way that Early Years classrooms have activities set up in areas of provision.

Equipment for all subjects is available to the children at all times enabling them to continue to practise skills learnt in Masterclasses.

The following are some images of the studio area we have developed outside of the classroom as an additional learning environment. The classrooms in year 5 are set up as fairly traditional classrooms with a bank of 5 computers each - the size of the rooms and the size of the children meant that to provide the aforementioned items in our environment we had to use some other space.